Bay of Plenty orchard 5

Most positive influence on orchard performance

  • The most positive influence is location and in terms of management, I believe it is the fertiliser management.

Most negative influence on orchard performance

  • The most negative influence is seasonal weather events. Particularly in spring.

General management

  • Pollination, fertiliser planning and spraying is contracted out. Remainder of work is completed by owners.

Canopy management

  • Tree spacing a bit variable but average is about 12m X 12m
  • Managed in rows
  • Max height of trees is 5-6m
  • Structural tree balance is the main priority when pruning followed by, managing crop load, access for picking and spraying, removing dead or diseased material and light interception.
  • Structural pruning is carried out once a year in autumn.
  • Flower pruning back to healthy leaf is carried out when trees are looking stressed
  • Fruit thinning is carried out as well when leaves are slow to develop or there is no leaf on limb supporting /protecting fruit.
  • About 25% or the canopy is removed when trees are pruned.

Soil and soil moisture management

  • Orchard is predominately sandy loam (Waihi ash).
  • Leaf litter, avocado pruning and shelter pruning are all used to mulch trees as well as other green waste from home and other sources.
  • Soil moisture is not monitored and the orchard is not irrigated.


  • No pollinisers are present in the orchard.
  • Hives are brought onto the orchard at 1-5% flowering at a rate of 3-4 hives per hectare. Hives are located where ever is accessible (random) in the orchard.

Soil and fertiliser application

  • Soil and leaf tests are carried out once a year in May.
  • A consultant provided a fertiliser plan based on test results and crop loading.
  • All fertiliser applications are made via ground application.
  • Boron fertiliser is applied to the ground when deficient.
  • Calcium fertiliser is applied to the ground when deficient.
  • Fertiliser is applied about 8 times a year.

Tree health management

  • Trees are injected with phosphonate once a year in August with root testing conducted to verify application has been successful.

Frost protection

  • No frost protection is in place in the orchard.